Anatomy

Like big buildings the body 1s constructed round a framework of girders. To this frame or skeleton all the muscles and important organs are attached.

The backbone (spine) is made up of ring-like bones, and down the middle runs the spinal cord. At the top of the spine is the head, which is like a bone box protecting the brain.

Attached to the spine is a cage of bones, the ribs, which protect the heart, lungs and liver. These ribs are joined at the front to the breast-bone.

To this breast-bone are joined the two collar-bones, and to these the two shoulder blades and to these the arms.
At the lower end of the spine is the pelvis, to which are attaches the legs.

The upper arms and thighs have one bone each; the forearms and lower legs, two bones each. The wrists and ankles contain groups of small square bones. Longer ones are in the palms and soles of the feet, and not quite such long ones in the fingers and toes.

There are seven major organs which carry out the various functions of the body.

The brain directs the body’s working by receiving messages through the nervous system and by sending messages to other
parts of the body along the spinal cord and nerves.

The heart pumps the blood through the body by way of the arteries, and receives it back through the veins.

The lungs take air into the body by means of the upperrespiratory tract. they also expel carbon dioxide a waste product taken from the blood.

The stomach takes in food, begins the digestive process and sends the food througn the intestines to complete digestion.
The liver and the pancreas discharge juices into the small intestine which aid in the digestion of food. The liver also stores vitamins, and aids in purifying the blood, while the pancreas regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.

The kidneys remove waste materials from the blood. These waste materials are carried to the bladder, where they are kept until evacuated from the body.

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